Peristiwa penting di dunia


1006 Supernova observed by Chinese & Egyptians in constellation Lupus.
1171 Dermot MacMurrough last Irish king of Leinster, dies.
1707 England, Wales & Scotland form UK of Great Britain.
1751 1st American cricket match was played.
1769 Arthur Wellsley Duke of Wellington, British PM (C) (1828-30), born.
1786 Mozart’s opera “Marriage of Figaro” premiers in Wien (Vienna).
1839 Chardonnet, France inventor (rayon), born.
1840 1st adhesive postage stamps (“Penny Blacks” from England) issued.
1889 1st International Workers Day, according to the 2nd International.
1913 Walter Susskind, Praha (Prague) Czechoslovakia, conductor, born.
1927 Harry Belefonte calypso singer (The Banana Boat Song), born.
1932 Paul Doumer Pres of France, assassinated by Russia’s Paul Gargalov.
1934 Philippine legislature accepts US proposal for independence.
1939 Batman Comics hit the street.
1939 Judy Collins, singer (Send in the Clowns, Clouds), born.
1941 “Citizen Kane,” directed & starring Orson Welles, premiers in NY.
1946 Joanna Lumley, Kashmir India, actress (Absolutely Fabulous, The Avengers), born.
1954 Ray Parker Jr rocker (Ghostbusters theme), born.
1959 Oscar Torp, Norwegian premier, dies.
1960 Russia shoots down Francis Gary Powers’ U-2 spy plane over Sverdlovsk.
1961 Fidel Castro announces there will be no more elections in Cuba.
1961 Tanganyika granted full internal self-government by Britain.
1963 Indonesia takes control of Irian Jaya (west New Guinea) from Netherlands.
1964 1st BASIC program run on a computer (Dartmouth).
1967 Priscilla & Elvis Presley wed.
1979 Elton John becomes 1st pop star to perform in Israel.
1979 Home rule introduced to Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenland).
1979 Marshall Islands (in the Pacific) become self-governing.
1989 135 acre Disney’s MGM studio officially opens to the public.

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1519 Leonardo Da Vinci artist/scientist, dies at 67.
1660 Alessandro Scarlatti, Palermo Italy, composer (Tigrane), born.
1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ends War of Devolution.
1729 Catherine II (the Great) empress of Russia (1762-96), born.
1776 France & Spain agree to donate arms to American rebels.
1780 William Herschel discovers 1st binary star, Xi Ursae Majoris.
1808 Uprising against French occupation begins in Madrid.
1810 Leo XIII, 257th Roman Catholic pope (1878-1903), born.
1840 Theodor Herzl, founded Zionist movement, born.
1885 Congo Free State established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
1892 Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen [the Red Baron], German WW I ace, born.
1903 Benjamin Spock, pediatrician/author (Common Sense Book of Baby Care), born.
1904 Bing Crosby (claimed this to be his Birthdate: True Date May 3 1903), crooner/actor (Going My Way), born.
1935 Faisal II, King of Iraq, born.
1945 Russia takes Berlin.
1946 Prisoners revolt at Alcatraz, 5 die.
1952 1st commercial jet plane, BOAC Comet.
1956 US Lab detects high-temperature microwave radiation from Venus.
1957 Joseph McCarthy commie hunting senator, dies at 47.
1964 Beatles’ Second album goes #1 & stays #1 for for 5 weeks.
1975 Apple records closes down (Beatles first record company).
1979 “Quadrophenia” premieres in London.
1979 Vivekananda (Sri Lanka) begins nonstop ride, cycling 187 hrs, 28 min., around Vihara Maha Devi Park, Columbia, Sri Lanka.
1980 Joseph Doherty & 3 other IRA men arrested for murder.
1990 David Rappaport 3’11’ actor (wizard), shoots himself at 38.

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1830 — First regular steam train passenger service starts.
1874 — Francois Coty, perfume maker, born
1898 — Golda Meir, Israeli leader, born
1933 — James Brown, singer of “I Feel Good . . . HEH!” fame, born.
1947 — Frankie Valli, seasonal singer, born
1952 — First landing by an airplane at geographic North Pole.


1493 — Alexander VI divides non-Christian world between Spain & Portugal.
1626 — Indians sell Manhattan Island for $24 in cloth & buttons.
1715 — French manufacturer debuts 1st folding umbrella (Paris).
1825 — Thomas Henry Huxley scientist/humanist/Darwinist, born.
1858 — War of the Reform (Mexico); Liberals establish capital at Vera Cruz.
1886 — Haymarket riot in Chicago; bomb kills 7 policemen.
1891 — Sherlock Holmes “dies” at Reichenbach Falls.
1918 Kakuei Tanaka Japanese PM convicted of bribe-taking, born.
1927 Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences forms.
1929 Audrey Hepburn, Brussels, Belgium (Breakfast at Tiffany’s, My Fair Lady), born.
1938 Douglas Hyde (a protestant) becomes 1st president of Eire.
1958 Keith Haring Kutztown Pa, graffiti artist (Vanity Fair, Paris Review), born.
1959 Randy Travis country singer (Always & Forever), born.
1970 4 students at Kent State University killed by Ohio National Guard during anti-war protest.
1976 Kiss performs their 1st concert.
1979 Margaret Thatcher becomes prime minister of England.
1990 Angela Bowie reveals that ex husband David slept with Mick Jagger.
1990 Latvia’s parliament votes 138-0 (1 abstention) for Independence.
1991 President Bush is hospitalized for erratic heartbeat.


In 553 Second Council of Constantinople (5th ecumenical council) opens.
In 1705 Leopold I Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, dies at 64.
In 1813 Síren Kierkegaard Denmark, philosopher, founded Existentialism, born.
In 1818 Karl Marx philosopher (Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital), born.
In 1867 Battle of Puebla; Mexicans defeat Maximilian’s forces (Cinco de Mayo).
In 1891 Carnegie Hall opens in NYC with Tchaikovsky as guest conductor.
In 1900 Spencer Tracy actor (Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner), born.
In 1908 Rex Harrison England, actor (My Fair Lady, Cleopatra), born.
In 1912 Fifth modern Olympic games opens in Stockholm.
In 1913 Tyrone Power actor (Mark of Zorro, Alexander’s Ragtime Band), born.
In 1925 John T Scopes arrested for teaching evolution in Tennessee.
In 1930 First woman to fly solo from England to Australia takes-off (Amy Johnson).
In 1943 Michael Palin comedian (Monty Python, Fish Called Wanda), born.
In 1945 Netherlands & Denmark liberated from Nazi control.
In 1965 First large-scale US Army ground units arrive in South Vietnam.
In 1981 Bobby Sands IRA activists dies in his 66th day of his hunger strike.
In 1990 Paul Hogan & Linda Koslowski wed in Byron Bay, Eastern Australia.
In 2000 Conjunction of Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn & Moon

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In 1527 Sack of Rome – End of the Renaissance.
In 1626 Peter Minuet purchases Manhattan Island for $24.
In 1818 Karl Marx, author of the Communist Manifesto, born
In 1851 Patent granted to Dr. John Farrie for a “refrigeration machine”.
In 1856 Sigmund Freud, cigar smoker, psychiatrist, born
In 1895 Rudolph Valentino, silent film star, sheik
In 1915 T. H. White, writer, born
In 1915 Orson Welles, actor (Citizen Kane), director, genius, born
In 1937 The dirigible Hindenburg explodes in flames at Lakehurst, NJ.
In 1954 Roger Bannister breaks the 4 min mile in 3:59:4
In 1985 Seventeenth Space Shuttle Mission – Challenger 7 returns to Earth.

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In 1812 Robert Browning, poet, born.
In 1824 Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony presented for first time.
In 1833 Johannes Brahms, composer, born.
In 1840 Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, composer, born.
In 1901 Gary Cooper, actor (High Noon, The Plainsman), born.
In 1909 Edwin Land, founded instant photography (Polaroid), born.
In 1919 Eva Peron, Argentine first lady, born
In 1945 World War II ends in Europe. Nazis surrender to General Eisenhower at Reims, France.
In 1968 Traci Lords, actress, born.

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In 535 John II ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 615 St Boniface IV ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 685 St Benedict II ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1450 Jack Cade’s Rebellion-Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI.
In 1541 Hernando de Soto discovers Mississippi River.
In 1737 Edward Gibbon England, historian (Decline & Fall of Roman Empire), born.
In 1753 Miguel Hidalgo father of Mexican independence, born.
In 1824 William Walker filibuster, president of Nicaragua (1856-57), born.
In 1828 Jean Henri Dunant Switzerland, founded Red Cross, YMCA (Nobel 1901), born.
In 1866 Australian Rules Football is created.
In 1884 Harry S Truman Missouri, 33rd US President (D) (1945-1953), born.
In 1886 Atlanta pharmacist John Styth Pemberton invents Coca Cola.
In 1895 China cedes Taiwan to Japan under Treaty of Shimonoseki.
In 1926 Richard F Attenborough environmentalist/zoologist/filmmaker (BBC), born.
In 1930 Gary Snyder beat poet (Rip Rap & Cold Mountain Poems), born.
In 1944 Gary Glitter [Paul Gadd] England, rocker (Rock & Roll Part II), born.
In 1945 Nazi General Von Keitel surrenders to Russian Marshal Zhukov near Berlin.
In 1945 V-E Day; Germany signs unconditional surrender, WW II ends in Europe.
In 1970 Beatles release “Let it Be” album.
In 1984 USSR announces it will not participate in LA Summer Olympics.
In 1988 Robert A Heinlein sci-fi writer, dies of heart failure at 80.

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In 1502 Columbus left Spain on his 4th and final trip to the New World.
In 1860 James M. Barrie (in Scotland), Author (Peter Pan)
In 1873 Howard Carter, Egyptologist who found King Tutankhamen
In 1936 Albert Finney, actor (Oliver, The Twelve Chairs)
In 1936 Italy annexed Ethiopia.
In 1945 Czechoslovak National Day.
In 1946 Candice Bergen (in Beverly Hills), actor (Murphy Brown)
In 1949 Billy Joel (in the Bronx, NY), singer, piano man
In 1950 EEC Anniversary.
1974 In House Judiciary Committee begin formal hearings on Nixon impeachment.

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In 1838 John Wilkes Booth assassin of Abraham Lincoln, born.
In 1850 Sir Thomas Lipton tea magnate (Lipton Tea), born.
In 1863 Gen Stonewall Jackson dies from wounds received at Chancellorsville.
In 1872 Victoria Woodhull becomes 1st woman nominated for US president.
In 1879 Meteor falls near Estherville, Iowa.
In 1899 Fred Astaire Omaha Neb, tap dancer/actor (Easter Parade, Swingtime), born.
In 1902 David O Selznick Pittsburgh Pa, producer (Gone With the Wind), born.
In 1908 First Mother’s Day held (Philadelphia).
In 1910 Halley’s closest approach to Earth.
In 1910 William Huggins discoverer of stellar nature of Andromeda, dies.
In 1940 Winston Churchill succeeds Neville Chamberlain as British PM.
In 1941 England’s House of Commons destroyed in a blitz.
In 1943 Donovan (Leitch) Scotland, rock singer (Mellow Yellow), born.
In 1955 Mark David Chapman assassin of John Lennon, born.
In 1957 Sid Vicious [John Beverly], bassist (Sex Pistols), born.
In 1960 Bono, aka Paul Hauson, rocker (U2), born.
In 1963 Decca signs the Rolling Stones on advice of Beatle George Harrison.
In 1986 Tommy Lee drummer of Motley Crue marries Heather Locklear.

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In 330 Constantinople (later Istanbul) founded.
In 1812 Waltz introduced into English ballrooms. Most observers consider it disgusting & immoral. No wonder it caught on!
In 1888 Irving Berlin [Isadore Balin], Temun, Russia, composer (White Xmas), born.
In 1892 Dame Margaret Rutherford, England, actress (Murder Most Foul), born.
In 1904 Salvador Dali, Spain, surrealist artist (Crucifixion), born.
In 1916 Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity presented.
In 1917 Britain grants Royal Letters Patent to New Zealand.
In 1924 Jackie Milburn, English soccer star (Newcastle United).
In 1927 Mort Sahl comedian/political satirist/beatnik (Big Party).
In 1941 Eric Burdon, rocker (Animals-House of the Rising Sun).
In 1947 Laos accepts constitution for parliamentary democracy.
In 1949 By a vote of 37-12, Israel becomes 59th member of UN.
In 1949 Siam renames itself Thailand.
In 1951 Jay Forrester patents computer core memory.
In 1959 Elvis Presley’s 1st entry on UK charts with “Heartbreak Hotel”.
In 1960 Israeli soldiers capture Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires.
In 1960 John D Rockefeller, Jr. philanthropist, dies at 86.
In 1981 Bob Marley reggae singer, dies at 36 of brain & lung cancer.
In 1962 Emilio Estevez actor (Breakfast Club, Young Guns).
In 1965 Bangladesh windstorm kills 17,000.
In 1975 Israel signs an agreement with European Economic Market.
In 1977 Ted Turner manages an Atlanta Braves game.

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In 254 — St Stephen I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1812 Edward Lear England, landscape painter, writer of nonsense verse, born.
In 1820 Florence Nightingale Florence, Italy, nurse (Crimean War), born.
In 1881 Treaty of Bardo, Tunisia becomes a French protectorate.
In 1929 Burt Bacharach composer (I’ll Never Fall in Love Again), born.
In 1936 George VI’s coronation in Great Britain.
In 1937 Beryl Burton UK, won record (7) women’s cycling titles, born.
In 1940 Nazi blitz conquest of France began by crossing Muese River.
In 1943 Axis forces in North Africa surrender.
In 1948 Steve Winwood England, rocker (A Higher Love), born.
In 1949 West begins Berlin Airlift to get supplies around Soviet blockade.
In 1950 Shozo Fujii judo champion, born.
In 1960 Elvis Presley appears on a Frank Sinatra TV special.
In 1962 Emilio Estevez actor (Young Guns), born.
In 1963 Bob Dylan walks off Ed Sullivan Show.
In 1965 Israel & West Germany exchange letters beginning diplomatic relations.
In 1972 Paul McCartney & Wings release “Mary Had a Little Lamb”.
In 1977 First quadraphonic concert (Pink Floyd in London).
In 1982 In Fatima Portugal, a Spanish priest with a bayonet is stopped prior to his attempt to attack Pope John Paul II.
In 1984 South African prisoner Nelson Mandela sees his wife for 1st time in 22 years.
In 1990 Nora Dunn & Sinead O’Connor boycott Saturday Night Live to protest Andrew “Dice” Clay’s hosting.

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In 535 St Agapitus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1655 Innocent XIII, 244th Roman Catholic pope (1721-24), born.
In 1717 Empress Maria Theresa, Austria (Wife of Napoleon), born.
In 1842 Sir Arthur Sullivan, London, England, of Gilbert & Sullivan fame, born.
In 1856 Peter Henry Emerson, 1st to promote photography as an independent art, born.
In 1888 Brazil abolishes slavery.
In 1907 Daphne du Maurier novelist (Rebecca, The Parasites), born.
In 1912 Royal Flying Corps established in England.
In 1913 First four engine aircraft built & flown (Igor Sikorsky-Russia).
In 1931 Jim Jones, reverend, poisoned several hundred of his followers in Guyana, born.
In 1940 Churchill says “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears & sweat”.
In 1941 Ritchie Valens, singer (Donna, La Bamba), born.
In 1950 Peter Gabriel, rocker (Genesis-Against All Odds), born.
In 1950 Diner’s Club issues its 1st credit cards.
In 1950 Stevie Wonder, singer/songwriter (You are The Sunshine of My Love), born.
In 1961 Gary Cooper, 2 time Academy award winning actor, dies at 60.
In 1965 Rolling Stones record “Satisfaction”.
In 1966 Rolling Stones release “Paint It Black”.
In 1970 Beatles movie “Let It Be” premiers.
In 1981 Pope John Paul II shot, wounded by assailant in St Peter’s Square.

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In 1004 Henry II the Saint crowned as king of Italy
In 1027 Robert II, the Vrome, names son Henry I, King of France
In 1264 Baron’s War fought in England
In 1264 Battle at Lewes: Simon van Leicester beats English king Henry III
In 1590 Battle at Ivry: French King Henri IV beats Catholic League
In 1607 First permanent English settlement in New World, Jamestown, VA
In 1643 Louis XIV becomes King of France
In 1702 England & Netherlands declares war on France & Spain
In 1702 Swedish troops under King Charles XII occupy Warsaw
In 1767 British government disbands Americans import duty on tea
In 1787 Delegates gather in Philadelphia to draw up US Constitution
In 1796 First smallpox inoculation administered, by Edward Jenner
In 1804 Lewis & Clark set out from St Louis for Pacific Coast
In 1874 — First admission charge at a football game, Harvard beats McGill 3-0
In 1894 Fire in Boston bleachers spreads to 170 adjoining buildings
In 1896 Lowest US temperature in May recorded (-10øF-Climax, Colorado)
In 1904 First Olympics in US are held at St Louis, MO.
In 1906 Flagpole at the White Sox ballpark breaks during pennant-raising
In 1908 First passenger flight in an airplane
In 1921 — Florence Allen is 1st woman judge to sentence a man to death
In 1921 — Mussolini’s fascists obtains 29 parliament seats
In 1935 — Plebiscite in Philippines ratifies independence agreement
In 1940 — Nazi bombs Rotterdam (600-900 dead), Netherlands surrender to Germany
In 1941 — 3,600 Parisian Jews arrested
In 1942 US Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) forms
In 1944 Gen Rommel, Speidel & von Stalpnagel attempt to assassinate Hitler
In 1945 Kamikaze-Zero strikes US aircraft carrier Enterprise
In 1945 US offensive on Okinawa, Sugar Loaf conquered
In 1946 Paul Hindemith’s “For Those We Love,” premieres
In 1948 Israel declares independence from under British administration
In 1948 US grants Israel de facto recognition
In 1948 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enwetak
In 1949 Truman signs bill establishing a rocket test range at Cape Canaveral
In 1960 USSR launch 1st (unmanned) space capsule
In 1961 Bus with 1st group of Freedom Riders bombed & burned in Alabama
In 1963 Kuwait is 111th member of the United Nations
In 1973 Skylab launched, 1st Space Station
In 1973 US Supreme court approves equal rights to females in military
In 1986 Institute for War documents publishes Anne Franks complete diary
In 1989 Demonstration for democratic reforms in Beijing’s Tiananmen square
In 1995 Dalai Lama proclaims 6-year-old Gedhun Choekyi Nyima 11th
In 1998 Last episode of Seinfeld on NBC (commercials are $2M for 30 seconds)

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In 1602 Cape Cod was discovered by the English navigator Batholomew Gosnold.
In 1753 Whitsunday Term Day.
In 1886 American poet Emily Dickinson died.
In 1918 US Airmail begins between Wash DC, Philadelphia and New York.
In 1919 Wladziu Valentino Liberace, pianist, born
In 1930 A United Air Lines flight from Oakland, CA to Cheyenne, WY carried the first airline “air hostess” (stewardess) — Ellen Church.
In 1934 US Dept of Justice offers $25,000 reward for Dillinger, dead or alive.
In 1936 Paul Zindel, playwright, born
In 1940 Nylon stockings on sale for the first time in the United States.
In 1948 Brian Eno, singer, songwriter, born
In 1955 Lee Horsley, actor, born
In 1958 The Soviet Union launched Sputnik III.

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In 1770 Marie Antoinette married the future King Louis XVI of France.
In 1801 William H. Seward, who bought Alaska at $0.02/acre, born.
In 1905 Henry Fonda (in Grand Island, Nebraska), actor, born.
In 1920 Joan of Arc was canonized in Rome.
In 1929 First Academy Awards were given out. ‘Wings’ won best picture. Best Actor went to Emil Jennings; Best Actress, Janet Gaynor.
In 1952 Pierce Brosnan (in Israel), actor (current James Bond), born.
In 1955 Debra Winger (in Columbus, Ohio), actor, born.
In 1955 Olga Korbut (in Russia), gymnast, born.
In 1966 Janet Jackson, singer, Michael’s sister, born.
In 1969 Venera 5, Venus landing. First successful landing on another planet.
In 1970 Gabriela Sabatini, tennis professional, born.
In 1975 Japanese Junko Tabei became first woman to reach Mt Everest’s summit.
In 1990 Sammy Davis, Jr., “The Complete Entertainer”, dies of throat cancer.
In 1990 Later that day, Jim Henson, creator of the Muppets, dies from pneumonia and complications.

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In 218 Seventh recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
In 352 Liberius begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 884 St Adrian III begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1444 Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter (Birth of Venus), born.
In 1620 First merry-go-round seen at a fair (Philippapolis, Turkey).
In 1630 Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi, 1st to see 2 belts on Jupiter surface.
In 1672 Frontenac becomes governor of New France (Canada).
In 1749 Edward Jenner England, physician, started vaccination, born.
In 1809 Papal States annexed by France.
In 1814 Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden (Norwegian National Day). Norwegian constitution passed by assembly at Eidsvoll.
In 1836 Joseph Norman Lockyer discovered Helium/founded Nature magazine, born.
In 1900 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Iran’s spiritual leader, born.
In 1928 Ninth modern Olympic games opens in Amsterdam.
In 1936 Dennis Hopper actor (True Grit, Blue Velvet, Easy Rider), born.
In 1940 Germany occupies Brussels, Belgium and begins invasion of France.
In 1942 Taj Mahal NYC, singer/songwriter (The Real Thing), born.
In 1950 Christian Lacroix, French couturier, born.
In 1956 “Sugar” Ray Leonard welter/middle/light-heavyweight boxing champion, born.
In 1963 Brigitte Nielsen actress (Red Sonja, Rocky IV, Domino), born.
In 1970 Thor Heyerdahl crosses the Atlantic on reed raft ‘Ra’.
In 1975 10cc releases I’m Not in Love.
In 1983 Israel and Lebanon sign a peace treaty.
In 1989 Nelson Mandela receives a BA from University of South Africa.


In 526 St John I ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1804 Napoleon became Emperor of France.
In 1830 Edwin Budding of England signs an agreement for manufacture of his invention, the lawn mower.
In 1868 Nicholas II last Russian tsar (1894-1917), born.
In 1872 Bertrand Russell England, mathematician/philosopher (Nobel 1950), born.
In 1897 Frank Capra movie director (Its a Wonderful Life, Arsenic and Old Lace), born.
In 1900 Britain proclaims protectorate over kingdom of Tonga.
In 1910 Passage of Earth through tail of Halley’s Comet causes near-panic.
In 1912 Perry Como singer/TV (Perry Como Show, What did Delaware?), born.
In 1918 Pope John Paul II 264th Roman Catholic pope (1978- ), born.
In 1919 Dame Margot Fonteyn England, ballerina (partner of Nureyev), born.
In 1960 Yannick Noah France, tennis player (French 1983), born.
In 1965 Gene Roddenberry suggests 16 names including Kirk for Star Trek Captain.
In 1980 Ian Curtis musician (Joy Division), dies.
In 1980 Mount St Helens blows its top in Washington State.


In 715 St Gregory II begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1536 Anne Boleyn wife of Henry VIII, beheaded.
In 1588 Spanish Armada sets sail for Lisbon, bound to England.
In 1611 Innocent XI 240th Roman Catholic pope (1676-89), born.
In 1780 About midday, near-total darkness descends on much of New England to this day it’s cause is still unexplained.
In 1890 Ho Chi Minh trail blazer/leader of Vietnam (1946, 1969), born.
In 1925 Malcolm X Omaha NB, assassinated leader of Black Muslims, born.
In 1928 “Firedamp” explodes in Mather, PA coal mine killing 195 of 273 miners.
In 1935 T. E. Lawrence (of Arabia) dies in a motorcycle crash.
In 1945 Peter Townsend singer (Who-Tommy), born.
In 1964 US diplomats find at least 40 hidden microphones in the Moscow embassy.
In 1966 Tortoise reportedly given to Tonga’s king by Capt. Cook (1773), dies.
In 1971 Ogden Nash poet/TV panelist (Masquerade Party), dies at 68.
In 1971 USSR launches Mars 2, first spacecraft to crash land on Mars.
In 1976 Gold ownership legalized in Australia.
In 1979 Guitarist Eric Clapton marries Patti Boyd.
In 1983 NASA launches Intelsat V.
In 2161 Syzygy: 8 of 9 planets aligned on same side of sun.

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In 526 Earthquake kills 250,000 in Antioch, Syria.
In 1506 Christopher Columbus explorer, dies in poverty in Spain at 55.
In 1690 England passes Act of Grace, forgiving followers of James II.
In 1799 Honore de Balzac France, novelist (Pere Goriot), born.
In 1806 John Stuart Mill philosopher/political economist/Utilitarian, born.
In 1874 Levi Strauss markets blue jeans with copper rivets, price $13.50 doz.
In 1900 Second modern Olympic games opens in Paris (lasted 5 months).
In 1908 Jimmy Stewart, actor (Mr. Smith Goes to Wash, Wonderful Life), born.
In 1915 Moshe Dayan Israeli general/politician, born.
In 1926 Thomas Edison says Americans prefer silent movies over talkies.
In 1927 Great Britain via treaty grants Saudi Arabia’s kingdom independence.
In 1944 Joe Cocker England, rock musician (You can leave your hat on), born.
In 1946 Cher, rocker/actress (I got you babe, Jack Lalane, Mask), born.
In 1956 Atomic fusion (thermonuclear) bomb dropped from plane-Bikini Atoll.
In 1967 BBC bans Beatle’s A Day in the Life (drug references).
In 1970 The Beatles’ Let it Be movie premiers in UK.
In 1972 Republic of Cameroon declared as constitution is ratified.
In 1979 First western pop star to tour the USSR-Elton John.
In 1985 FBI arrests John A Walker, Jr., convicted of spying for USSR.
In 1989 China declares martial law in Beijing.
In 1989 Gilda Radner comedienne (SNL), dies at 42 of cancer.

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In 427 B.C. Plato (Aristocles), philosopher/writer, Athens, born.
In 1471 Albrecht Dürer Nörnberg Germany, Renaissance painter/print maker, born.
In 1527 Philip II king of Spain (1556-98) and Portugal (1580-98), born.
In 1688 Alexander Pope England, poet, born.
In 1904 Fats Waller jazz pianist, composer (Ain’t Misbehavin’), born.
In 1904 Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), Soccer’s World governing body forms.
In 1927 Lindbergh lands in Paris, after 1st solo air crossing of Atlantic.
In 1948 Leo Sayer [Gerard], England, singer (When I Need Love), born.
In 1952 Mr T [Lawrence Tero], Chicago, actor, (A-Team, Rocky III, T and T), born.
In 1980 Empire Strikes Back premieres.
In 1983 David Bowie’s Let’s Dance single goes #1.
In 1991 Rajiv Gandhi Indian Prime Minster, assassinated.


In 760 Fourteenth recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
In 1807 Townsend Speakman first sells fruit-flavored carbonated drinks (Philadelphia).
In 1813 Richard Wagner Leipsig Germany, composer (Ring, Flying Dutchman, Ride of the Valkries), born.
In 1858 Confederacion Granadina (now Colombia) forms.
In 1859 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle UK, brought Sherlock Holmes to life twice, born.
In 1868 Great Train Robbery; 7 men make off with $98,000 in cash.
In 1924 Charles Aznavour Paris France, singer (Monsieur Carnavel), born.
In 1939 Hitler and Mussolini sign “Pact of Steel”.
In 1959 Morrissey, (Steven Patrick) British rocker (The Smiths and solo artist), born.
In 1965 Beatles’ Ticket to Ride, single goes #1.
In 1967 Egyptian president Nassar closes Straits of Tiran to Israel.
In 1972 Ceylon becomes Republic of Sri Lanka as its constitution is ratified.
In 1977 Final European scheduled run of the Orient Express (94 years).
In 1990 Rocky Graziano boxer, dies at 71, of heart failure.


In 1430 Joan of Arc captured by Burgundians who sold her to the English.
In 1533 King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon marriage declared null and void by the newly formed Church of England.
In 1701 Captain Kidd is hanged in London after convicted of piracy and murder.
In 1883 Douglas Fairbanks, first and greatest of Hollywood’s swashbucklers, born
In 1873 Canada’s North West Mounted Police force (The Mounties) first established.
In 1915 Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War I.
In 1933 Joan Collins (in London), actor, born
In 1934 Bonnie and Clyde shot in Louisiana ambush.
In 1937 Industrialist John D. Rockefeller died in Ormond Beach, FL.
In 1945 Nazi Himmler committed suicide while in prison at Lunenburg, Germany.
In 1949 West Germany was proclaimed.
In 1952 ‘Marvelous’ Marvin Hagler (in New Jersey), boxer, born
In 1960 Israel announced capture of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Argentina.

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In 1686 Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, invented the thermometer, born.
In 1743 Jean-Paul Marat, philosopher, born.
In 1819 Queen Victoria, British ruler, born.
In 1844 Samuel F. B. Morse taps out “What Hath God Wrought”.
In 1899 The first auto repair shop opens in Boston, MA.
In 1941 Robert Zimmerman (a.k.a. Bob Dylan) (in Minnesota), folk singer, born.
In 1944 Patti Labelle, singer, born.
In 1945 Priscilla Presley, actor, wife of Elvis, born.
In 1954 First rocket to exceed 150 mile altitude – White Sands, NM.
In 1959 First house with built-in bomb shelter exhibited, Pleasant Hills, Pa.
In 1962 M. Scott Carpenter aboard Aurora 7 is launched.
In 1964 Beatles’ third appearance on Ed Sullivan.
In 1975 Soyuz 18B is launched.

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In 585 B.C. First known prediction of a solar eclipse.
In 1085 St Gregory VII, pope (1073-85), dies (birth date unknown).
In 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile captured Toledo, Spain, and brought the Moorish center of science into Christian hands.
In 1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson US, essayist/philosopher, born.
In 1810 Argentina declares independence from Napoleonic Spain (Natl. Day).
In 1878 Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, actor (Stormy Weather, Little Colonel), born.
In 1889 Igor Sikorsky developed a working helicopter, born.
In 1911 Revolution in Mexico overthrows President Diaz.
In 1914 British House of Commons passes Irish Home Rule.
In 1926 Miles Davis trumpeter; pioneered cool jazz (Porgy and Bess), born.
In 1927 Robert Ludlum spy novelist (Bourne Identity), born.
In 1927 Henry Ford stops producing Model T car (begins Model A).
In 1935 Jesse Owens equals or breaks 6 world records in one hour.
In 1941 Five thousand drown in a storm at Ganges Delta region in India.
In 1943 Sally Jesse Raphael TV talk show host (Sally), born.
In 1944 Frank Oz Heresford England, puppeteer (Sesame St, Muppet Show), born.
In 1945 Arthur C. Clarke proposes relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit.
In 1946 Jordan gains independence from Britain (Natl. Day).
In 1958 Paul Weller guitar (Jam-This is the Modern World, Style Council), born.
In 1967 John Lennon takes delivery of his psychedelic painted Rolls Royce.
In 1978 Star Wars released.
In 1983 Return of the Jedi (Star Wars 3) released.

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In 1328 William of Ockham forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.
In 1667 Abraham De Moivre French mathematician (De Moivre’s theorem), born.
In 1799 Alexander S Pushkin Russia, writer (Eugene Onegin), born.
In 1886 Al Jolson jazz singer/silent film actor (Mamie, Swanee), born.
In 1896 Last Czar of Russia, Nicholas II, crowned.
In 1907 John Wayne “Duke”, [Marion Michael Morrison] actor (True Grit), born.
In 1913 Peter Cushing England, actor (Hound of the Baskervilles), born.
In 1918 Georgian Social Democratic Republic declared independence from Russia.
In 1923 First Le Mans Grand Prix d’Endurance was run.
In 1937 San Francisco Bay’s Golden Gate Bridge opens.
In 1946 Patent filed in US for H-Bomb.
In 1946 Stevie Nicks Phoenix, AZ, rocker (Fleetwood Mac-Bella Donna), born.
In 1948 South Africa elects a nationalist government with apartheid policy.
In 1957 Siouxsie [Susan Ballion], (Siouxsie and the Bandshee-Wild Thing), born.
In 1966 British Guiana gains independence, takes the name Guyana.
In 1969 Apollo 10 returns to Earth.
In 1969 John and Yoko begin their 2nd bed-in (Queen Elizabeth Hotel, Montreal).

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In 1647 Achsah Young becomes 1st woman known to be executed as a witch (MA).
In 1837 Wild Bill Hickok cowboy, born.
In 1844 Samuel F. B. Morse completes 1st telegraph line.
In 1911 Vincent Price St Louis Mo, actor (The Fly, Laura), born.
In 1949 Ropert L. Ripley cartoonist (Believe It or Not), dies at 55 in NY.
In 1958 Neil Finn rocker (Split Enz-I Got You, Crowded House), born.
In 1965 Pat Cash tennis player (Wimbledon 1987), born.

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In 1738 Dr. Joseph Guillotin, guess what he invented, born.
In 1742 First indoor swimming pool opens at Goodman’s Fields, London.
In 1886 Jim Thorpe, Olympic athlete, born.
In 1908 Ian Fleming, writer (James Bond series), born.
In 1929 First all color talking picture On With The Show exhibited, NYC.
In 1944 Gladys Knight, singer, born.
In 1953 Premier of first animated 3-D cartoon in Technicolor – Melody.
In 1959 First animals fired into space and rescued, Cape Canaveral.
In 1961 Amnesty International Anniversary.
In 1971 Mars 3 launched. First spacecraft to soft land on Mars.

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In 757 St Paul I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
In 1453 Constantinople falls to Muhammad II (Turks); ends Byzantine Empire. Also considered the end of the Middle Ages.
In 1630 Charles II king of England (1660-85), born.
In 1826 Ebenezer Butterick inventor (tissue paper dress pattern), born.
In 1837 Birth of Charles W. Fry, the English musician who, along with his three sons, formed the first Salvation Army brass band.
In 1900 Trademark Escalator registered by Otis Elevator Co..
In 1911 First running of the Indianapolis 500.
In 1917 John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th U.S. President (1961-1963), born.
In 1922 Ecuador becomes independent.
In 1939 Al Unser, auto racer (Indianapolis 500-1970, 71), born.
In 1953 Hillary and Tenzing become 1st humans to reach top of Mt Everest.
In 1958 Annette Bening, actress (Bugsy, Valmont), born.
In 1977 Sue Press is 1st woman golfer to hit consecutive holes-in one.
In 1980 Larry Bird beats out Magic Johnson for NBA rookie of year.
In 1984 Eric Morecambe comedian (Morecambe and Wise), dies at 58.
In 1985 Thirty-five die in rioting between British and Italians at European Cup soccer.
In 1987 Michael Jackson attempts to buy Elephant Man’s remains.

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In 1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake in Rouen, France at age 19.
In 1778 The French philosopher Voltaire died.
In 1908 Mel Blanc, the voice of Bugs Bunny, Elmer Fudd, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Barney Rubble, etc, etc, born.
In 1909 Benny Goodman, bandleader, king of swing, born
In 1911 Indianapolis 500 car race run for first time. Winning driver Ray Harroun takes it with a blazing 75 mph.
In 1926 Christine Jorgensen, pioneer transsexual, born
In 1971 Mariner 9 launched.
In 1972 Three Japanese PFL terrorists kill 24, wound 72 at Tel Aviv’s Lydda airport.
In 1982 Spain became the 16th member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

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In 1678 Lady Godiva takes a ride through Coventry.
In 1809 Composer Franz Josef Hayden died in Vienna, Austria.
In 1819 Walt Whitman (in West Hills, NY), poet, born.
In 1868 First recorded bicycle race, 2 kilometers in Paris.
In 1879 First electric railway opens at Berlin Trades Exposition.
In 1908 Don Ameche, actor (Cocoon, Trading Places), born.
In 1910 Union of South Africa was founded.
In 1916 During WW I British and German fleets fought the Battle of Jutland.
In 1923 Prince Rainier of Monaco, born.
In 1930 Clint Eastwood, actor (Dirty Harry, Heartbreak Ridge, City Heat), born.
In 1950 Tom Berenger, actor, born.
In 1961 South Africa became an independent republic.
In 1962 WW II Gestapo official Adolf Eichmann hung in Israel.
In 1965 Brooke Shields (in New York City), actor, model, born.
In 1970 Tens of thousands of people in Peru died in an earthquake.
In 1974 Israel and Syria sign an agreement concerning the Golan Heights.
In 1988 Americans and Soviets ratify the INF treaty, agreeing to eliminate medium range nuclear warheads.

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